Management instruments are the elements and methods that enable and help decision-makers to make rational and informed choices between alternative actions. These include a wide range of methods, both quantitative and qualitative, based on disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, environmental sciences, system engineering, legal sciences, sociology and economics.
To make progress in IWRM it is necessary to select the group of instruments that better suit a specific reality, considering the existing social and political consensus, available resources, and geographical, social and economic contexts; and applying them properly.
For this purpose, it is necessary that the decision-makers know the management instruments that are in use, and the experiences and lessons that have been acquired after applying these instruments on different realities, so that it is possible to select best options while adapting to local conditions.
To support this task, the management instruments from the present chapter have been identified, and then grouped – according to their objectives – in 9 classes:
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