Water is primarily used for domestic purposes and small-scale irrigation in Guatemala, while in Mexico, 54% of surface water is used for irrigation, 26% for human consumption and 10% for agribusiness. Coffee production and export plays an essential part in the livelihoods strategies of communities.
Marginalised farmers have been forced to higher altitudes on the volcano and have cleared forests to make way for small farms. In the low and middle parts of the catchment, agriculture sector pollutes the water and larger-scale farming has degraded the land. Unregulated land use change has been especially damaging on steep hillsides and deforestation has reduced the capacity of the soils to retain water. The resulting erosion has strongly increased the risk of floods and mudslides.
The Water and Nature Initiative (WANI) set up a demonstration project in the Tacaná Watersheds on the boarder of Guatemala and Mexico together with its partners. The project was a combination of livelihoods projects and bottom-up integrated governance of water resources management with the major goals to raise awareness and disseminate information about water resources management.
Within the project numerous community pilot projects to improve livelihoods through water, soil and environmental conservation were carried out.
The community pilot projects were also part of the mechanism to bring stakeholders together to organize themselves into Microwatershed councils. Additionally, when the Tropical Storm Stan hit the area in 2005, activities to restore water supplies were carried out by WANI.
Importance of the case for IWRM
The WANI Tacaná Watersheds demonstration project has built a platform for wider influencing of regional and national water management. The promotion of integrated water resources management and resilience at the local, national and regional level has continued with other projects which mostly focus on governance through
Microwatershed councils and building resilience through water management. The continued livelihoods work is also a strong component in these complementing projects.