Lithuania has an estimated population of 3.2 million as of 2011, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius.

65% of population lives in urban areas, although historically Lithuania is an agricultural country.

The country shares common borders with Latvia in the north (588 km), Belarus in the south-east (653 km), Poland in the south-west (104 km), and the Kaliningrad Region of the Russian Federation, also in the south-west (249 km).

The length of Baltic Sea coastline with the Eastern Baltic northernmost ice-free seaport is 99 km.

Geographical location of Lithuania is favorable with respect to surface and groundwater resources.

There are 29,000 rivers with total length of 64,000 km and 18 rivers are longer than 100 km. Consequently the river network in Lithuania is rather dense on average reaching 1.18 km per 1 km². The Nemunas River basin occupies 74 % of the territory of the country. Number of lakes larger than 0.5 hectares comprises 2,850 with total area of 908 km2.

Rainfall during the average year amounts to 748 mm. Renewable water resources of Lithuania reach 15.4 km³, beside that 10.8 km³ of water comes as transit flows from Byelorussia, Poland and Russia.

Ministry of Environment is the main ministry responsible for water management in Lithuania.